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Take a minute to look at the row of icons at the bottom of your display. That row is the Dock, and those individual pictures are known as icons.
Dock icons are a quick way to bring a hidden window or application to the front so that you can work with it again. Dock icons are odd ducks — they’re activated with a single-click. Most icons are selected (highlighted) when you single click and opened when you double-click. So Dock icons are kind of like links on a Web page — you need only a single click to open them.
You can customize your Dock with favorite applications, a document you update daily, or maybe a folder containing your favorite recipes — use the Dock for anything you need quick access to. Here’s how you can add an icon to the Dock or remove a Dock icon you no longer desire.
Adding an icon to the Dock
Adding an application, file, or folder to the Dock is as easy as 1-2-3. First, open a Finder window that contains an application, file, folder, URL, or disk icon that you use frequently. Then follow these steps to add it to the Dock:
1. Click the item you want to add to the Dock.
2. Drag the icon out of the Finder window and onto the Dock, as shown in Figure 1.
3. An icon for this item now appears on the Dock.
Folder, disk, and URL icons must be on the right of the divider line in the Dock; Application icons must be on the left of it.
Figure 1: Drag an icon onto the Dock to add it.
You can add several items at the same time to the Dock by selecting them all and dragging the group to the Dock. However, you can delete only one icon at a time from the Dock.
Removing an icon from the Dock
To remove an item from the Dock, just drag its icon onto the Desktop. It disappears with a cool poof animation, as shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2: To remove an icon, drag it off the Dock and POOF — it’s gone.
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By moving an icon out of the Dock, you aren’t moving, deleting, or copying the item itself — you’re just removing its icon from the Dock. The item is unchanged. Think of it like a library catalog card: Just because you remove the card from the card catalog doesn’t mean that the book is gone from the library.
After you figure out which programs you use and don’t use, it’s a good idea to relieve overcrowding by removing the ones you never (or rarely) use.
Knowing what to put in your Dock
Put things on the Dock that you need quick access to and that you use often, or add items that aren’t quickly available from menus or the sidebar. If you like using the Dock better than the Finder window sidebar, for example, add your Documents, Movies, Pictures, Music, or even your hard disk to the Dock.
Consider adding these items to your Dock:
- A word-processing application: Most people use word-processing software more than any other application.
- A project folder: You know, the folder that contains all the documents for your thesis, or the biggest project you have at work, or your massive recipe collection . . . whatever. Add that folder to the Dock, and then you can access it much quicker than if you have to open several folders to find it.
- Don’t forget — if you
- (click but don’t let go) on a folder icon, a handy hierarchical menu of its contents appears.
- A special utility or application: You may want to add your favorite graphics application such as Photoshop, or the game you play every afternoon when you think the boss isn’t watching.
- Your favorite URLs: Save links to sites that you visit every day — ones that you use in your job, your favorite Mac news sites, or your personalized page from an Internet service provider (ISP). Sure, you can make one of these pages your browser’s start page or bookmark it, but the Dock lets you add one or more additional URLs.
- Here’s how to quickly add a URL to the Dock. Open Safari and go to the page with a URL that you want to save on the Dock. Click and drag the small icon that you find at the left of the URL in the Address bar to the right side of the dividing line in the Dock (at the arrow’s head in Figure 3) and then release the mouse button. The icons in the Dock will slide over and make room for your URL. From now on, when you click the URL icon that you moved to your Dock, Safari opens to that page.
Figure 3: To save a URL to your Dock, drag its little icon from the Address bar to the right side of the Dock.
- You can add several URL icons to the Dock, but bear in mind that the Dock and its icons shrink to accommodate added icons, thus making them harder to see. Perhaps the best idea — if you want easy access to several URLs — is to create a folder full of URLs and put that folder on the Dock. Then you can just press and hold your mouse pointer on the folder (or Control-click the folder) to pop up a menu with all your URLs.
Even though you can make the Dock smaller, you’re still limited to one row of icons. The smaller you make the Dock, the larger the crowd of icons you can amass. You have to determine for yourself what’s best for you: having lots of icons available on the Dock (even though they may be difficult to see because they’re so tiny) or having less clutter but fewer icons on your Dock.
In computing, the trash (also known as the Recycle Bin in Microsoft Windows and by other names in other operating systems) is temporary storage for files that have been deleted in a file manager by the user, but not yet permanently erased from the file system. Typically, a recycle bin is presented as a special file directory to the user (whether or not it is actually a single directory depends on the implementation), allowing the user to browse deleted (removed) files, undelete those that were deleted by mistake, or delete them permanently (either one by one, or via an 'empty trash' command).
Within a trash folder, a record may be kept of each file and/or directory's original location, depending on the implementation. On certain operating systems, files must be moved out of the trash before they can be accessed again.
Whether or not files deleted by a program go to the recycle bin depends on its level of integration with a particular desktop environment and its function. Low-level utilities usually bypass this layer entirely and delete files immediately. A program that includes file manager functionality may or may not send files to the recycle bin, or it may allow the user to choose between these options.
A small icon of a waste container for deleting files was implemented during the development of the Apple Lisa user interface in 1982, where it was called the 'Wastebasket'. The concept carried over to the Apple Macintosh, as the 'Trash', except in the pre-OS 9 'International English' localization, which retained 'Wastebasket'.
Apple Inc. sued to prevent other software companies from offering graphical user interfaces similar to its own. Apple lost most of its claims but courts agreed Apple's Trash icon was original and protected by copyright. Non-Apple software may use other metaphors for file deletion, such as Recycle Bin, Smart Eraser, or Shredder.
In early versions of the Macintosh Finder, Trash contents were listed in volatile memory. Files moved to the Trash would appear there only until the Finder session ended, then they would be automatically erased. When System 7 was released, the Trash became a folder that retained its contents until the user chose to empty the trash.
Microsoft first implemented the 'trash can' concept in MS-DOS 6, under the name Delete Sentry: When a file was deleted, it was moved to a hidden SENTRY folder at the root of the drive.Microsoft introduced its current trash system, the Recycle Bin, with Windows 95, as an area to store and review files and folders prior to deletion. In this version, the original location record of the file is stored, but the folder itself didn't allow subdirectories. When a folder is deleted, its containing files are moved into the bin and mixed with other deleted files. The directory structure can only be restored if the batch of files are 'undeleted'. The current (revised) Recycle Bin allows for subdirectory trees to exist within folders that have been moved there.
Recycle bin functionality is usually integrated into a desktop environment and its file manager. Examples include:
- MS-DOS 6.x, with Microsoft Undelete, as 'Delete Sentry'
- Classic Mac OS and macOS, with Finder, as 'Trash' (or Wastebasket in defunct localisations)
- Microsoft Windows, with Windows Explorer (later called File Explorer starting with Windows 8), as 'Recycle Bin'
- GNOME and MATE (Linux), with Nautilus and Caja, respectively
- KDE (Linux), with Konqueror and Dolphin
- Xfce (Linux), with Thunar
- Amiga, with Workbench. The Professional File System added trashcan-esque behavior at the filesystem level.
Some implementations may contain 'shredding' functionality to counter data remanence.
Linux desktop environments
The KDE, GNOME and Xfce implementations comply with the freedesktop.org Trash specification, ensuring that any applications written with this specification in mind will be interoperable with any trash can implementation.
Although the various Linux desktop environments such as GNOME, KDE, and Xfce provide a trash mechanism, there is traditionally no simple way to trash something from the command line interface. Some third-party applications, such as trash-cli, provide commands on the command-line to use the trash, compatible with the FreeDesktop.org Trash Specification.
Under macOS, when a file is deleted in Finder, it is moved to a .Trashes folder, and when viewing the device's available space the space occupied by the deleted files is shown as occupied.
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In macOS Sierra, the user can turn on an option to have the Trash delete after 30 days.
Since macOS Mojave, the Trash has been known as 'bin' in the Australian English localisation. Since macOS Catalina, 'bin' has also been used in the UK localisation.
Microsoft's Recycle Bin is implemented as a special folder with columns like Date deleted and Original location. Typically only files deleted via File Explorer (but not necessarily other Windows graphical interfaces such as file selection dialogs) will be put into the Recycle Bin; files deleted via the Command Prompt are permanently deleted, as (by default) are files deleted via operating system APIs and applications other than Windows Explorer. Some operating system APIs do, however, allow applications to recycle files rather than delete them. In previous Windows operating systems and in MS-DOS, undeletion was the only way to recover accidentally or intentionally deleted files.
As standard, the Recycle Bin only stores files deleted from hard drives, not from removable media, such as memory cards, thumb drives, or floppy disks, nor does it store files deleted from network drives. There are methods to make it work on network paths, however.
The Recycle Bin has a setting to configure the amount of deleted files it can store. Free disk space allocated for this is not actually used until files are deleted from folders and stored in the Recycle Bin. In versions of Windows prior to Windows Vista, the default configuration of the Recycle Bin is a global setting for all drives to hold 10% of the total capacity of each host hard drive volume to store deleted files. For example, on a volume with a capacity of 20 gigabytes, the Recycle Bin will hold up to 2 gigabytes of deleted files. This can be changed anywhere from 0 to 100% of the drive space, but will not be allowed to exceed 3.99GB of space, even if the user-indicated % of the drive space is larger than 3.99GB. If the Recycle Bin fills up to maximum capacity, the oldest files will be deleted in order to accommodate the newly deleted files. If a file is too large for the Recycle Bin, the user will be prompted to immediately and permanently delete the file instead. This 3.99GB limit does not apply in Windows Vista and later Windows versions.
The actual location of the Recycle Bin depends on the type of operating system and file system. On older FAT file systems (typically Windows 98 and prior), it is located in Drive:RECYCLED. In the NTFS filesystem (Windows 2000, XP, NT) it is Drive:RECYCLER. On Windows Vista and Windows 7 it is Drive:$Recycle.Bin folder.
The Recycle Bin can be accessed from the desktop or Windows Explorer,[how?] or by typing shell:RecycleBinFolder in the Run dialog box (⊞ Win+R). It is the only icon shown by default on the Windows XP desktop. When accessed from the desktop, the Recycle Bin options and information are different from those of the physical Recycle Bin folders seen on each partition in Windows Explorer. From Windows XP onwards, with NTFS, different users cannot see the contents of each other's Recycle Bins.
Prior to Windows Vista, a file in the Recycle Bin is stored in its physical location and renamed as D<original drive letter of file><#>.<original extension>. A hidden file called info2 (info in Windows 95 without the Windows Desktop Update) stores the file's original path and original name in binary format. Since Windows Vista, the 'meta' information of each file is saved as $I<number>.<original extension> and the original file is renamed to $R<number>.<original extension>.
When the user views the Recycle Bin, the files are displayed with their original names. When the file is 'Restored' from the Recycle Bin, it is returned to its original directory and name.
In Windows Explorer, files are moved to the Recycle Bin in a number of ways:
- By right-clicking on a file and selecting delete from the menu
- Selecting the file and pressing the delete key
- Selecting delete from the Task pane in Windows XP
- Selecting the file and choosing delete from the File menu (in Windows XP Explorer)
- By dragging and dropping a file into the Recycle Bin icon
- From the Send To menu
- From a context menu command or some other function in a software application (usually configurable)
It is possible to bypass the Recycle Bin and directly delete a file by holding the SHIFT key while performing an action that would normally send a file to the trash.
Apple's macOS has long allowed dragging a disk icon to the Trash as a method for unmounting and/or physically ejecting a disk, but this does not place the disk in the Trash folder nor does it erase the disk. In macOS the Trash icon temporarily changes to an Eject or Disconnect symbol whenever storage volumes are dragged. The GNOME Human Interface Guidelines cite such behavior as an example of a discouraged metaphor.
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- ^'Macintosh Stories: Busy Being Born'. Folklore.org. 22 February 1999. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
- ^'GUIdebook > Extras > Trivia'. Folklore.org. 2006. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- ^'APPLE COMPUTER, INC. v. MICROSOFT CORP., 35 F.3d 1435 (9th Cir. 1994)'. Home.earthlink.net. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
- ^Lewis, Peter H. (27 August 1991). 'PERSONAL COMPUTERS; Norton Desktop for Windows'. The New York Times.
- ^'Delete Sentry Automatically Purges Files When Necessary'. Microsoft Support. Microsoft Corporation. Retrieved 3 June 2010.
When Microsoft Undelete is using the Delete Sentry level of protection, files that are deleted are stored in a hidden SENTRY directory in the root of the drive.
- ^'Now You Delete It, Now You Don't'. PC Operating Instructions, Vol.5 Issue 6. Smart Computing. June 1994. Retrieved 3 June 2010.
Delete Sentry. This is the most reliable file-recovery method. This method sets up a hidden directory named SENTRY. UNDELETE saves the contents of all deleted files in this directory. Because these files are kept in the hidden directory, it doesn't matter whether the originals have been written over or not. UNDELETE simply restores the files you want from the SENTRY directory.
- ^ abcde'How the Recycle Bin Stores Files'. Microsoft. 19 January 2007. Retrieved 8 September 2008.
- ^'Bug 41850 – Trash should follow fdo trash spec (adds restoring facilities)'. Bugzilla.gnome.org. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
- ^'Trash specification'. Freedesktop.org. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
- ^'Here's Why You May Never Need to Empty Trash in macOS Sierra'. TekRevue. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
- ^'Files Deleted at MS-DOS Prompt Do Not Go to Recycle Bin'. Support.microsoft.com. 19 January 2007. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- ^'c# - How do you place a file in recycle bin instead of delete?'. Stack Overflow. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
- ^'Recycle Bin overview: Windows XP Professional Product Documentation'. Microsoft.com. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- ^'Enable Recycle Bin on mapped network drives'.
- ^'Why does the Recycle Bin have different file system names on FAT and NTFS?'. The Old New Thing. MSDN Blogs. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
- ^'HOW TO: Bypass the Recycle Bin When You Delete Files and Folders in Windows XP'. Support.microsoft.com. 26 March 2004. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- ^'Create a Match Between Your Application and the Real World'. Library.gnome.org. Retrieved 10 October 2015.